Setting up a mail server

Background

Some terminology:

With SMTP you connect to a server and send two things: envelope and message.

The envelope looks like this:

MAIL FROM: <enrico@enricozini.org>
RCPT TO: <rms@fsf.org>
RCPT TO: <linus@linux.org>

The message looks like this:

From: <enrico@enricozini.org>
To: <rms@fsf.org>
Cc: <linus@linux.org>
Message-ID: <1234567@enricozini.org>
Subject: Test mail

Hi Richard,

this is a test mail.  I'm also writing
Linus to show how to send to more people.

Cheers,

Enrico

There is no authentication.

There is no encryption.

Two usual types of access control:

  1. Outbound e-mail is normally only accepted from an internal network
  2. Inbound e-mail is normally accepted from anywhere

The DNS is used to find the SMTP server to use to send a message:

$ host -t MX yahoo.com
yahoo.com MX 10 smtp1.yahoo.com
yahoo.com MX 20 smtp2.yahoo.com
yahoo.com MX 20 smtp3.yahoo.com

The process of sending an E-Mail:

  1. Enrico writes an E-Mail:

    From: Enrico Zini <enrico@enricozini.org>
    To: Richard Stallman <rms@fsf.org>
    Subject: Hello from Addis
    
    Hi Richard,
    
    Addis is a wonderful city, even if
    it rains a lot.
    
    Bye,  Enrico
    
  2. Enrico's MUA connects to the SMTP server (for example, port 25 of smtp.aau.edu.et):

    HELO enricozini.org
    200 OK Hello enricozini.org
    MAIL FROM: <enrico@enricozini.org>
    200 OK Mail from enrico@enricozini.org
    RCPT TO: <rms@fsf.org>
    

    Here, the SMTP server performs relay control: "do we relay mail to rms@fsf.org?":

    • Outbound e-mail is normally only accepted from an internal network
    • Inbound e-mail is normally accepted from anywhere

    A target address could be refused:

    413 ERR I don't relay for rms@fsf.org
    

    In this case, the destination is not local but the recipient is accepted because I'm inside the local network:

    200 OK Destination rms@fsf.org
    DATA
    200 OK Please send message body
    From: Enrico Zini <enrico@enricozini.org>
    To: Richard Stallman <rms@fsf.org>
    Subject: Hello from Addis
    Date: Mon, 17 Jul 2006 09:49:45 +0300
    Message-ID: <124372643@enricozini.org>
    
    Hi Richard,
    
    Addis is a wonderful city, even if
    it rains a lot.
    
    Bye,  Enrico
    .
    200 OK Message accepted
    QUIT
    200 OK Bye.
    
  3. The SMTP server needs to find out where to send the message, using the DNS:

    $ host -t MX fsf.org
    fsf.org MX 10 mail.fsf.org
    fsf.org MX 20 mail.gnu.org
    
  4. So the SMTP server tries the first one and connects to port 25 of mail.fsf.org:

    HELO smtp.aau.edu.et
    200 OK Hello smtp.aau.edu.et
    MAIL FROM: <enrico@enricozini.org>
    200 OK Mail from enrico@enricozini.org
    RCPT TO: <rms@fsf.org>
    

    The destination is accepted because it's for a local user::

    200 OK Destination rms@fsf.org
    DATA
    200 OK Please send message body
    From: Enrico Zini <enrico@enricozini.org>
    To: Richard Stallman <rms@fsf.org>
    Subject: Hello from Addis
    Date: Mon, 17 Jul 2006 09:49:45 +0300
    Message-ID: <124372643@enricozini.org>
    Received: by mail.aau.edu.et
      on Mon, 17 Jul 2006 09:55:53 +0300
      from 10.4.15.158
    
    Hi Richard,
    
    Addis is a wonderful city, even if
    it rains a lot.
    
    Bye,  Enrico
    .
    200 OK Message accepted
    QUIT
    200 OK Bye.
    
  5. Now, mail.fsf.org will invoke a MDA to write the mail in Richard Stallman's mailbox.

Example of problems with mail handling:

RFC-822 is the original standard for E-mail. RFCs are standard Internet documents. Have a look at RFC documents released the 1st of April.

postfix

Common setup: "Internet site with smarthost".

More difficult to maintain: "Internet site".

A smarthost is a machine that will relay e-mail for you.

Questions asked with "Internet site with smarthost":

To test a mail server::

$ telnet localhost 25
HELO me
MAIL FROM: <a@b.c>
RCPT TO: <mail@of.a.local.user>
DATA

hi
.
QUIT

By default, you find locally delivered mail in /var/mail/username.

Postfix configuration files:

To rewrite addresses:

  1. In /etc/postfix/main.cf::

    canonical_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/canonical
    
  2. Then in /etc/postfix/canonical you can add the rewrite rules, like::

    enrico   enrico@enricozini.org
    
  3. When /etc/postfix/canonical is modified you need to regenerate the index::

    sudo postmap canonical
    

    (same is when you change the alias file: sudo postalias /etc/aliases)

(see file:///usr/share/doc/postfix/html/ADDRESS_REWRITING_README.html)

Manipulating the message queue:

mailq - List the mail queue.

Example::

    mailq

postqueue - Postfix queue control

Examples::

    # Like mailq
    postqueue -p

    # Tries to send every message in the queue
    postqueue -f

    # Tries to send every message in the queue for that site
    postqueue -s site

postsuper - Postfix superintendent

Examples::

    # Deletes one message
    sudo postsuper -d 7C4D2EC0F5D

    # Deletes all messages held in the queue for later delivery
    sudo postsuper -d ALL deferred

Different mail queues in postfix:

Mail logs are in::

/var/log/mail.log
/var/log/mail.err
/var/log/mail.info
/var/log/mail.warn

Mail delivery

Mailbox formats:

Alternate MDA: procmail: allows to filter mail automatically into different folders.

Mail forwarding with ~/.forward: allows to redirect mail to a different address: just put the address you want to send to in the file ~/.forward.

POP or IMAP server

Installation:

apt-get install dovecot

Configuration is in::

/etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf

The main thing that is needed is to enable the mail protocols you want::

protocols = imaps

Server monitoring

To make all sorts of graphs::

apt-get install munin munin-node

Example: http://munin.ping.uio.no

To compute more statistics:

Monitor system logs: logcheck:

Filtering viruses and spam

clamav - Virus scanner

Virus scanning:

spamassassin - Spam filter

Spam scanning:

Man pages and sections

Man pages are divided in sections:

Authentication and encryption with SMTP (update by Marius Gedminas)

You can have authentication and encryption with SMTP:

Cheat sheet

Setting up the client (I assume Ubuntu)

  # vi /etc/postfix/main.cf

      relayhost = [hostname.of.your.ISPs.smtp.server]
      smtp_use_tls = yes
      smtp_enforce_tls = yes
      smtp_tls_enforce_peername = no
      smtp_sasl_auth_enable = yes
      smtp_sasl_password_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/smtp_auth
      smtp_sasl_security_options = noanonymous

  # vi /etc/postfix/smtp_auth

      [hostname.of.your.ISPs.smtp.server] username:password

  # chmod 600 /etc/postfix/smtp_auth
  # postmap /etc/postfix/smtp_auth
  # postfix reload

(It would be a good idea to make the client verify the server's certificate to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks, but I haven't figured out that part yet...)

Setting up the server

  # apt-get install sasl2-bin libsasl2-modules
  # saslpasswd2 -u hostname.of.the.server -c username1
  # saslpasswd2 -u hostname.of.the.server -c username2
  ...

        these commands create /etc/sasldb2

  # echo "pwcheck_method: auxprop" > /etc/postfix/sasl/smtpd.conf
  # touch /var/spool/postfix/etc/sasldb2
  # echo mount --bind /etc/sasldb2 /var/spool/postfix/etc/sasldb2 \
          > /etc/init.d/local-sasl-for-postfix
  # chmod +x /etc/init.d/local-sasl-for-postfix
  # ln -s ../init.d/local-sasl-for-postfix /etc/rc2.d/S19local-sasl-for-postfix
  # /etc/init.d/local-sasl-for-postfix
  # adduser postfix sasl

        these commands let postfix (which runs chrooted) access /etc/salsdb2

  # cd /etc/postfix
  # openssl req -new -outform PEM -out smtpd.cert -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes \
            -keyout smtpd.key -keyform PEM -days 365 -x509
  # chmod 600 smtpd.key

        these commands create a self-signed SSL certificate

  # vi main.cf

      smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
      broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
      smtpd_sasl_local_domain = hostname.of.the.server
      smtpd_recipient_restrictions = permit_mynetworks,
                                     permit_sasl_authenticated,
                                     reject_unauth_destination
      smtpd_use_tls = yes
      smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/smtpd.cert
      smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/smtpd.key

  # /etc/init.d/postfix restart

eng etiopia pdo tips

2009-06-06 00:57:39+02:00