Tag etiopia

Latest posts for tag etiopia

2009-06-06 00:57:39+02:00


Da una canzone in amarico:

"Il tuo amore è diventato vecchio

come gli edifici costruiti dagli italiani"

etiopia ita life
2009-06-06 00:57:39+02:00


È interessante, bello e triste allo stesso tempo trovarsi a ridefinire il significato di "Abissinia". E maledire che per i primi 30 anni della tua vita, quella parola l'hai sentita soltanto quando uno stronzo cantava "Faccetta nera".

etiopia life rant
2009-06-06 00:57:39+02:00

Procedure to check if all the services of Dream University are up and running

Tenth day in Addis

If a machine blocks pings, use arping instead.

  1. Test DHCP:

    $ sudo ifdown eth0
    $ sudo ifup eth0
    $ ifconfig
  2. Test the DNS:

    # See if the DNS machine is on
    # The network
    $ ping -n
    # See if the DNS resolves names
    $ host www.dream.edu.et
  3. Test the gateway:

    # Ping the gateway
    $ ping gateway
    # Ping an outside host
    $ ping -n
  4. Test the proxy:

    # Ping the proxy
    $ ping proxy
    # Open a web page and see if it displays
    # See if it caches
    http_proxy=http://proxy.dream.edu.et:3030/ wget -S -O/dev/null http://www.enricozini.org  2>&1 | grep X-Cache
  5. Test the mail server:

    $ ping smtp
    $ nmap smtp -p 25 |grep 25/tcp
    $ if nmap gateway -p 25 |grep 25/tcp | grep -q open ; then echo "It works"; fi
    $ send a mail and see if you receive it

To do more advanced network and service monitoring, try nagios:

New useful tools seen today

wget - The non-interactive network downloader.

Special devices

Example uses:

wget -O/dev/null http://www.example.org

dd if=/dev/zero of=testdisk bs=1M count=50
mke2fs testdisk
sudo mount -o loop testdisk  /mnt

Tiny little commands

Example uses:

Some more shell syntax

Some people run commands ignoring the standard error: command 2> /dev/null this causes unexpected error messages to go unnoticed: please do not do it.

What to check if a machine is very slow

More VIM command mode

Command mode allows to perform various text editing functions.

You work by performing operations on selected blocks of text.

Some common operations:

Some common blocks:


The best way to learn more vim is always to run vimtutor.

Installing squirrelmail

To install squirrelmail:

  1. apt-get install squirrelmail
  2. /usr/sbin/squirrelmail-config and configure IMAP and SMTP.

    In our case, since we use IMAPS, the IMAP server is imap.dream.edu.et, port 993, secure IMAP enabled and SMTP is smtp.dream.edu.et. 3. Read /usr/share/doc/squirrelmail/README.Debian.gz (with zless) for how to proceed with setup. A short summary: * link /etc/squirrelmail/apache.conf into the apache conf.d directory * customise /etc/squirrelmail/apache.conf for example setting up the virtual hosts, or running it only on SSL

To have different virtual hosts over HTTPS, you need to have a different IP for every virtual host: name based virtual hosts do not work on HTTPS.

You can configure multiple IP addresses on the same computer: use network interfaces named: eth0:1, eth0:2, eth0:3... These are called interface aliases.

You cannot setup interface aliases using the graphical network configuration and you need to add them in /etc/network/interfaces:

    iface eth0:1 inet static
    auto eth0:1

This is the trick commonly used to put different virtual HTTPS hosts on the same computer.


squid documentation:

Shell programming:

Performance analysis:

Setting up mail services:

eng etiopia pdo tips
2009-06-06 00:57:39+02:00

Ninth day in Addis


To enable remote logins with ssh

apt-get install openssh-server

Then you can login with:

$ ssh efossnet@proxy.dream.edu.et

To verify the host key fingerprint of a machine:

$ ssh-keygen -l -f /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.pub

Note: you need to verify it before logging in!

More information at http://www.securityfocus.com/infocus/1806

Example ssh usages

To log in:

    $ ssh efossnet@proxy

To run a command in the remote computer:

    $ ssh efossnet@proxy "cat /etc/hosts"

To copy a file to the remote computer:

    $ scp Desktop/july-18.tar.gz efossnet@proxy:

To copy a file from the remote computer:

    $ scp efossnet@proxy:july-18.tar.gz /tmp/

Beware of brute-force login attempts

Warning about SSH: there are people who run automated scans for ssh servers and try to login using commonly used easy passwords.

If you have an SSH server on the network, use strong passwords, or if you can it's even better to disable password authentication: in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, add:

    PasswordAuthentication no

To log in using public/private keys:

  1. Create your key:

    ssh-keygen -t rsa
  2. Copy your public key to the machine where you want to log in:

    ssh-copy-id -i .ssh/id_rsa.pub efossnet@proxy
  3. Now you can ssh using your RSA key

If you use ssh often, read these:


Problems we had today with the proxy:

ssl does not work

Reason: squid tries to directly connect to the ssl server, but the AAU network wants us to go through their proxy.

Ideal solution: none. There is no way to tell squid to use a parent proxy for SSL connections.

Solution: update the documentation for the Dream university users telling to setup a different proxy for SSL connections.

Longer term solution: get the AAU network admins to enable outgoing SSL connections from the Dream university proxy.

Other things that can be done:

Browsing normal pages returns an error of 'Connection refused'.

In the logs, the line is:

1153294204.912    887 TCP_MISS/503 1441 GET http://www.google.com.et/search? - NONE/- text/html

That "/503" is one of the HTTP error codes.

Explanation of the error codes:

Reason: the other proxy is refusing connections from our proxy.

Solution: none so far. Will need to get in touch with the admins of the other proxy to try to find out why it refuses connection to our proxy, and how we can fix the problem.

postfix on smtp.dream.edu.et

Basic information is at http://www.postfix.org/basic.html.

Difference between mail name and smarthost:

Quick way to send test mails:

apt-get install mailx
echo ciao | mail efossnet@localhost

To configure a workstation not to do any mail delivery locally and send all mail produced locally to smtp.dream.edu.et:

  1. install postfix choosing "Satellite system"
  2. put smtp.dream.edu.et as a smarthost.

To setup a webmail: apt-get install squirrelmail (on a working apache setup).

To setup mailing lists: apt-get install mailman, then follow the instructions in /usr/share/doc.

Mail server issues we encountered

When a mail is sent to efossnet@localhost, the system tries to send it to efossnet@yoseph.org


Cause: the user efossnet had forgotten that he or she had setup a .forward file in the home directory.


 rm ~efossnet/.forward


To add a new website:

  1. cd /etc/apache2/sites-available
  2. sudo cp default course
  3. sudo vi course:

    1. Remove the first line
    2. Add a ServerName directive with the address of your server: ServerName course.dream.edu.et
    3. Customize the rest as needed: you at least want to remove the support for browsing /usr/share/doc and you want to use a different document root.
  4. sudo a2ensite course

  5. sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 reload

More VIM

Undo: u (in command mode)

Redo: ^R (in command mode)

You can undo and redo multiple times.

To recover a lost password for root or for the ubuntu admin user

Boot with a live CD, mount the system on the hard disk (the live CD usually does it automatically), then edit the file /etc/shadow, removing the password:




You can edit the file because, in the live CD system, you can always become root.

After you do this, reboot the system: you can log in without password, and set yourself a new password using the command passwd.

Installing packages not on the CDs

To get a package for installing when offline:

  1. apt-get --print-uris install dnsmasq
  2. Manually download the packages at the URLs that it gives you

Otherwise, apt-get --download-only install dnsmasq will download the package for you in /var/cache/apt/archives.

You can install various previously downloaded debian packages with:

dpkg -i *.deb


There are various ways:

Makes a low-level dump of the file system.

It must be used for every different partition.

It makes the most exact backup possible, including inode numbers.

It can do full and incremental backups.

To see the type of the filesystems, use 'mount' with no parameters.

To restore: restore or xfsrestore.

Filesystem independent.

It can work accross partitions.

It correctly backups permissions and hard links.

It can do full and incremental backups.


    tar lzcpf backup.tar.gz /home /var /etc /usr/local
    tar lzcpf root.tar.gz /

To restore:

    tar zxpf backup.tar.gz

Filesystem independent.

Uses hard drive as backup storage.

Always incremental.

It cannot do compression.

Unchanged files in new backups are just links to old backups, and do not occupy space.

Any old backup can be deleted at any time without compromising the others.

It can be used to provided a "yesterday's files" service to users (both locally and exported as a read-only samba share...).

To restore, just copy the files from the backup area.

It is a network backup system.

It can do full and incremental backups.

You can have a backup server which handles the storage and various backup clients that send the files to backup to the server.

It takes some studying to set up.

To restore: it has its own tool.

Some data requires exporting before backing it up:

To restore:

    dpkg --set-selections < list
    debconf-set-selections < pkgconfig
    apt-get dselect-upgrade

If you do this, they you only need to backup /etc, /home, /usr/local, /var.

To restore:

    zcat name-of-database.dump.gz | mysql

You can schedule these dumps to be made one hour before the time you make backups.

Scheduling tasks

As a user:

crontab -e

As root: add a file in one of the /etc/cron.* directories.

In cron.{hourly,daily,weekly,monthly} you put scripts.

In the other directories you put crontab files (man 5 crontab).

If the system is turned off during normal maintainance hours, you can do two things:

  1. Change /etc/crontab to use different maintanance hours
  2. Install anacron (it's installed by default in ubuntu)

For scheduling one-shot tasks, use at(1):

$ at 17:40
echo "Please tell Enrico that the lesson is finished" | mail efossnet@dream.edu.et

When and how to automate

  1. First, you manage to do it yourself
  2. Then, you document it
  3. Then, you automate it

Start at step 1 and go to 2 or 3 if/when you actually need it.

(credits to sto@debian.org: he's the one from which I heard it for the first time, said so well).

Interesting programs to schedule during maintanance

Important keys to know in a Unix terminal

These are special keys that work on Unix terminals:

Therefore, if the terminal looks like it got stuck, try hitting ^Q.

Problems we had today with postfix


    $ host -t mx dream.edu.et
    Host dream.edu.et not found: 3(NXDOMAIN)

Solution: tell dnsmasq to handle a MX record also for dream.edu.et:


Reason: postfix was making complaints which mentioned localhost as a domain name.

Solution: fixed by changing 'myhostname' in main.cf to something different than localhost.

Note: solved by luck. Investigate why this happened.

Problems found yesterday and today

Otherwise, one can add a new (disabled) site that can be used as a template for new sites instead of default.

eng etiopia pdo tips
2009-06-06 00:57:39+02:00

Addis course Tasks & Skills questions

What does it do?

What command would you use to add a new username and password to /etc/apache2/students? (you can write the entire commandline if you know it, but just the name of the command is fine)

What are their advantages and disadvantages?

eng etiopia pdo
2009-06-06 00:57:39+02:00

Seventh day in Addis

Setting up a mail server


Some terminology:

With SMTP you connect to a server and send two things: envelope and message.

The envelope looks like this:

MAIL FROM: <enrico@enricozini.org>
RCPT TO: <rms@fsf.org>
RCPT TO: <linus@linux.org>

The message looks like this:

From: <enrico@enricozini.org>
To: <rms@fsf.org>
Cc: <linus@linux.org>
Message-ID: <1234567@enricozini.org>
Subject: Test mail

Hi Richard,

this is a test mail.  I'm also writing
Linus to show how to send to more people.



There is no authentication.

There is no encryption.

Two usual types of access control:

  1. Outbound e-mail is normally only accepted from an internal network
  2. Inbound e-mail is normally accepted from anywhere

The DNS is used to find the SMTP server to use to send a message:

$ host -t MX yahoo.com
yahoo.com MX 10 smtp1.yahoo.com
yahoo.com MX 20 smtp2.yahoo.com
yahoo.com MX 20 smtp3.yahoo.com

The process of sending an E-Mail:

  1. Enrico writes an E-Mail:

    From: Enrico Zini <enrico@enricozini.org>
    To: Richard Stallman <rms@fsf.org>
    Subject: Hello from Addis
    Hi Richard,
    Addis is a wonderful city, even if
    it rains a lot.
    Bye,  Enrico
  2. Enrico's MUA connects to the SMTP server (for example, port 25 of smtp.aau.edu.et):

    HELO enricozini.org
    200 OK Hello enricozini.org
    MAIL FROM: <enrico@enricozini.org>
    200 OK Mail from enrico@enricozini.org
    RCPT TO: <rms@fsf.org>

    Here, the SMTP server performs relay control: "do we relay mail to rms@fsf.org?":

    • Outbound e-mail is normally only accepted from an internal network
    • Inbound e-mail is normally accepted from anywhere

    A target address could be refused:

    413 ERR I don't relay for rms@fsf.org

    In this case, the destination is not local but the recipient is accepted because I'm inside the local network:

    200 OK Destination rms@fsf.org
    200 OK Please send message body
    From: Enrico Zini <enrico@enricozini.org>
    To: Richard Stallman <rms@fsf.org>
    Subject: Hello from Addis
    Date: Mon, 17 Jul 2006 09:49:45 +0300
    Message-ID: <124372643@enricozini.org>
    Hi Richard,
    Addis is a wonderful city, even if
    it rains a lot.
    Bye,  Enrico
    200 OK Message accepted
    200 OK Bye.
  3. The SMTP server needs to find out where to send the message, using the DNS:

    $ host -t MX fsf.org
    fsf.org MX 10 mail.fsf.org
    fsf.org MX 20 mail.gnu.org
  4. So the SMTP server tries the first one and connects to port 25 of mail.fsf.org:

    HELO smtp.aau.edu.et
    200 OK Hello smtp.aau.edu.et
    MAIL FROM: <enrico@enricozini.org>
    200 OK Mail from enrico@enricozini.org
    RCPT TO: <rms@fsf.org>

    The destination is accepted because it's for a local user::

    200 OK Destination rms@fsf.org
    200 OK Please send message body
    From: Enrico Zini <enrico@enricozini.org>
    To: Richard Stallman <rms@fsf.org>
    Subject: Hello from Addis
    Date: Mon, 17 Jul 2006 09:49:45 +0300
    Message-ID: <124372643@enricozini.org>
    Received: by mail.aau.edu.et
      on Mon, 17 Jul 2006 09:55:53 +0300
    Hi Richard,
    Addis is a wonderful city, even if
    it rains a lot.
    Bye,  Enrico
    200 OK Message accepted
    200 OK Bye.
  5. Now, mail.fsf.org will invoke a MDA to write the mail in Richard Stallman's mailbox.

Example of problems with mail handling:

RFC-822 is the original standard for E-mail. RFCs are standard Internet documents. Have a look at RFC documents released the 1st of April.


Common setup: "Internet site with smarthost".

More difficult to maintain: "Internet site".

A smarthost is a machine that will relay e-mail for you.

Questions asked with "Internet site with smarthost":

To test a mail server::

$ telnet localhost 25
MAIL FROM: <a@b.c>
RCPT TO: <mail@of.a.local.user>


By default, you find locally delivered mail in /var/mail/username.

Postfix configuration files:

To rewrite addresses:

  1. In /etc/postfix/main.cf::

    canonical_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/canonical
  2. Then in /etc/postfix/canonical you can add the rewrite rules, like::

    enrico   enrico@enricozini.org
  3. When /etc/postfix/canonical is modified you need to regenerate the index::

    sudo postmap canonical

    (same is when you change the alias file: sudo postalias /etc/aliases)

(see file:///usr/share/doc/postfix/html/ADDRESS_REWRITING_README.html)

Manipulating the message queue:

mailq - List the mail queue.



postqueue - Postfix queue control


    # Like mailq
    postqueue -p

    # Tries to send every message in the queue
    postqueue -f

    # Tries to send every message in the queue for that site
    postqueue -s site

postsuper - Postfix superintendent


    # Deletes one message
    sudo postsuper -d 7C4D2EC0F5D

    # Deletes all messages held in the queue for later delivery
    sudo postsuper -d ALL deferred

Different mail queues in postfix:

Mail logs are in::


Mail delivery

Mailbox formats:

Alternate MDA: procmail: allows to filter mail automatically into different folders.

Mail forwarding with ~/.forward: allows to redirect mail to a different address: just put the address you want to send to in the file ~/.forward.

POP or IMAP server


apt-get install dovecot

Configuration is in::


The main thing that is needed is to enable the mail protocols you want::

protocols = imaps

Server monitoring

To make all sorts of graphs::

apt-get install munin munin-node

Example: http://munin.ping.uio.no

To compute more statistics:

Monitor system logs: logcheck:

Filtering viruses and spam

clamav - Virus scanner

Virus scanning:

spamassassin - Spam filter

Spam scanning:

Man pages and sections

Man pages are divided in sections:

Authentication and encryption with SMTP (update by Marius Gedminas)

You can have authentication and encryption with SMTP:

Cheat sheet

Setting up the client (I assume Ubuntu)

  # vi /etc/postfix/main.cf

      relayhost = [hostname.of.your.ISPs.smtp.server]
      smtp_use_tls = yes
      smtp_enforce_tls = yes
      smtp_tls_enforce_peername = no
      smtp_sasl_auth_enable = yes
      smtp_sasl_password_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/smtp_auth
      smtp_sasl_security_options = noanonymous

  # vi /etc/postfix/smtp_auth

      [hostname.of.your.ISPs.smtp.server] username:password

  # chmod 600 /etc/postfix/smtp_auth
  # postmap /etc/postfix/smtp_auth
  # postfix reload

(It would be a good idea to make the client verify the server's certificate to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks, but I haven't figured out that part yet...)

Setting up the server

  # apt-get install sasl2-bin libsasl2-modules
  # saslpasswd2 -u hostname.of.the.server -c username1
  # saslpasswd2 -u hostname.of.the.server -c username2

        these commands create /etc/sasldb2

  # echo "pwcheck_method: auxprop" > /etc/postfix/sasl/smtpd.conf
  # touch /var/spool/postfix/etc/sasldb2
  # echo mount --bind /etc/sasldb2 /var/spool/postfix/etc/sasldb2 \
          > /etc/init.d/local-sasl-for-postfix
  # chmod +x /etc/init.d/local-sasl-for-postfix
  # ln -s ../init.d/local-sasl-for-postfix /etc/rc2.d/S19local-sasl-for-postfix
  # /etc/init.d/local-sasl-for-postfix
  # adduser postfix sasl

        these commands let postfix (which runs chrooted) access /etc/salsdb2

  # cd /etc/postfix
  # openssl req -new -outform PEM -out smtpd.cert -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes \
            -keyout smtpd.key -keyform PEM -days 365 -x509
  # chmod 600 smtpd.key

        these commands create a self-signed SSL certificate

  # vi main.cf

      smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
      broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
      smtpd_sasl_local_domain = hostname.of.the.server
      smtpd_recipient_restrictions = permit_mynetworks,
      smtpd_use_tls = yes
      smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/postfix/smtpd.cert
      smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/postfix/smtpd.key

  # /etc/init.d/postfix restart
eng etiopia pdo tips
2009-06-06 00:57:39+02:00

Eight day in Addis

Useful things to keep in mind when setting up a service:

Example use of vim block selection:

To change network configuration with config files, edit:


To also setup DNS in /etc/network/interfaces, use dns-search and dns-nameservers (for this to work, you need to have the package resolvconf):

dns-search dream.edu.et

To make a router that connects to the internet on demand using a modem:

apt-get install diald

To see the path of network packets:


Basic NAT script:


modprobe iptable_nat
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o $OUT -j MASQUERADE
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

What happens at system startup:

  1. the BIOS loads and runs the boot loader
  2. the boot loader loads the kernel and the inintrd ramdisk and runs the kernel
  3. the kernel runs the script 'init' in the initrd ramdisk
  4. the script 'init' mounts the root directory
  5. the script 'init' runs the command /sbin/init in the new root directory
  6. 'init' starts the system with the configuration in /etc/inittab

To install a new startup script:

sudo ln -s /usr/local/sbin/firewall /etc/init.d
sudo update-rc.d firewall defaults 16 75

Normally you can just do:

sudo update-rc.d [servicename] defaults

To have a look at the start and stop order numbers, look at /etc/rc2.d for other start scripts and /etc/rc0.d for other stop scripts

To test a proxy, low level way:

$ telnet proxy 8080
Connected to proxy.dream.edu.et.
Escape character is '^]'.
GET http://www.google.com HTTP/1.0 [press enter twice]
eng etiopia pdo tips
2009-06-06 00:57:39+02:00

First day in Addis

First day in Addis Ababa, after the introductory session for this 10 days Linux training.

Interesting new quotes I picked up from the excellent presentation of Dr. Dawit:

Much that I bound I could not free Much that I freed returned to me

(I didn't manage to transcribe the attribution)

And this one for Bubulle, about translation:

When you speak to me in my language you speak to my heart when you speak to me in English you speak to my head


Incomplete list of questions I've been asked, in bogosort -n order:

I'm happy to find that we've been successful in building more and more good answers for these questions.

eng etiopia pdo
2009-06-06 00:57:39+02:00

Fourth day in Addis

Unix file permissions:

    drwxr-xr-x   2 root root    38 2006-07-14
    +- Is a directory

    drwxr-xr-x   2 root root    38 2006-07-14
      +- User permissions (u)

    drwxr-xr-x   2 root root    38 2006-07-14
         +- Group permissions (g)

    drwxr-xr-x   2 root root    38 2006-07-14
            +- Permissions for others (o)

    drwxr-xr-x   2 root root    38 2006-07-14
                    +- Owner user

    drwxr-xr-x   2 root root    38 2006-07-14
            Owner group -+

Other bits:

The executable bit for directories means "can access the files in the directory".

If a directory is readable but not executable, then I can see the list of files (with ls) but I cannot access the files.

To access a file, all the directories of its path up to / need to be executable.

Commands to manipulate permissions:

Example setup for a website for students:

    # Create the group 'students'
    mkdir /var/www/students
    chgrp students /var/www/students
    chmod 2775 /var/www/students

    # If you don't want other users to read the files of the students:

    chmod 2770 /var/www/students
    adduser www-data students
     (this way the web server can read the

    # when you add a user to a group, it does not affect running processes:

     - users need to log out and in again
     - servers need to be restarted


in /etc/apache/apache2.conf (set it to your IP address)

Apache troubleshooting:

This it is always a good thing to do before restarting or reloading apache.

To install PHP

To install MySQL

To use MySQL from PHP:

    apt-get install php5-mysqli php5-mysql

Problems found today:

eng etiopia pdo tips
2009-06-06 00:57:39+02:00

First pratical lesson

Notes after today's training session.

Small index of most used shell commands:

Small index of commands useful for combining in pipelines:

Problems found during the lesson:

So apt-cache is a manipulator that doesn't manipulate. A possible improvement can be "query the APT package cache". * The language selector in Ubuntu Breezy doesn't really exit and keeps the package database locked. This seems to be fixed in Dapper, and probably had been fixed in some Breezy update. System updates here are a problem: my Dapper (with some Universe things in it) wanted to download more than 120Mb of data, and the Uni network was giving me 14Kbps. It's been a nice opportunity to teach about fuser -uva and kill. * dict, squid and many other packages from 'main' are not on the normal Ubuntu CDs: is there an easy way to build a CD with them? Or do Ubuntu CDs with extra packages already exist? I'll have to find out. * cupsys has documentation outside of /usr/share/doc, in /usr/share/cups/doc-root. * man works on all commands, except cd, which is an internal shell command and thus needs help instead of man. I should remember to ponder about autogenerating manpages from help output. * Is there an index-like manpage with a list of the core Unix commands and their short descriptions? It there's not, it's easy to generate:

    find $DIR | while read FILE
        if [ -x $FILE ] && ! [ -d $FILE ]
            LANG=C COLUMNS=2000 man `basename $FILE` | \
                     grep ^SYNOPSIS -B 100 | grep ^NAME -A 100 | \
                     tail -n +2 | head -n +2 | \
                     grep -v '^[ \t]*$'
    ) | sort | uniq | sed 's/^ \+//'

Try running it on /bin and /sbin: it's great!. Also, since it doesn't redirect stderr, it nicely exposes a number of manpage problems.

Lots of bugs to report when I come home: from here it'll take ages, and lots of money on the hotel internet connection, and some are Ubuntu-specific so I'd need to do everything online with Malone.

As usual, teaching is one of the best ways to find bugs.

I propose an Etch training session a month before release.

Other things to do:

Update: Matt Zimmerman writes:

I read your blog entry at http://www.enricozini.org/blog/eng/second-day-in-addis and wanted to respond as follows:

  • localeconf is not the standard way to configure locales in Ubuntu; what documentation told you that? It's an unsupported package from Progeny. If what you wanted was to set the system default locale from the command line, editing /etc/environment is probably the best way.

  • I suggest filing a bug report at https://launchpad.net/products/ubuntu-website about the HTTPS issue; I don't think it's necessary for the entire wiki to be HTTPS, only authentication.

  • Synaptic may be able to use the GNOME proxy settings without introducing undesirable dependencies; please file a wishlist bug

  • dict, squid and other packages from main are not on the Ubuntu CDs because there is no space. The DVD contains these packages.

  • The cupsys documentation bug was quite likely inherited from Debian and should be reported there

  • You can file bugs in Malone via email; this has been possible for a long time now. Please don't reinforce this misconception.



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